What is OREC?

OREC (5G Open RAN Ecosystem) is a project launched in February 2021 by DOCOMO and 12 global vendors in order to promote the dissemination of open RANs. In October 2021, a vendor newly participated, and now there are 13 vendors involved in the project (as of February 2022). NTT DOCOMO has already estimated that the performance […]

What is CPRI (Common Public Radio Interface)?

Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) CPRI is an open specification for an interface between Radio Equipment Controllers (REC) often referred to as BBU, and Radio Equipment (RE), often referred to as RRH. The use of a CPRI interface run over a single-mode or multi-mode fiber enables the radio equipment to be mounted at the top […]

Why Should MNOs Care about Open RAN?

Demand for mobile bandwidth continues to grow as customers access new services and applications. To remain competitive, telecommunications companies must cost-effectively expand their network while also improving user experience. Global mobile data traffic is expected to increase 407% between 2018 and 2022. Radio access networks (RANs) are an expensive element in mobile networks. They often […]

What is The Difference between 4G and 5G?

4G was a great leap forward, allowing people to stream music and video on the go. 5G is designed to connect many more types of devices than smartphones – anything really. While 4G provided a one-size-fits-all kind of connectivity, where every device got the same service, 5G is different. 4G networks were mostly designed for […]

What is Network Data Analytics Function (NWDAF) for 5G?

Network Data Analytics Function (NWDAF) is a 3GPP standardized cloud-native microservice that calls upon other 5G SAmicroservice functions inside the network core to provide the data that can become operational intelligence relative to the current and future state of the network. NWDAF controls the flow and management of network data from three perspectives: Network Operational […]

What is N3IWF Function in 5G?

With 5GC, 4G, 3G and Non-5G-RAN (radio access networks other than 5G) such as public Wi-Fi will be able to connect to 5GC via a common interface. Using the N3IWF (non-3GPP Inter-Working Function), which is a function newly introduced from 5G, RANs other than 5G-RAN can also be connected to 5GC. It is called Multi-RAT (Radio […]

What is the DSS (Dynamic Spectrum Sharing) ?

Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS) allows both 4G and 5G to dynamically share the same spectrum, reusing existing 4G radios (e.g., antennas). With DSS, mobile operators can swiftly expand 5G coverage while eliminating the need for new spectrum allocation for 5G. DSS dynamically assigns time-frequency resources between 4G and 5G according to their respective traffic demands […]

What is The Difference between PTP and SyncE?

Previously, legacy synchronous networks relied on network elements to transmit and receive data at the same frequency in order to establish communication links. Modern data networks have more challenging Timing requirements in addition to Frequency, which include Phase and Time of Day (ToD). Not only the same number of repeated events per second (Frequency) must […]

What is the difference between D-RAN and C-RAN?

D-RAN is the traditional RAN or Radio Access Network where BBU (Baseband Unit) and RRH (Remote Radio Head) are placed on the same place in the site. C-RAN is the decoupling between BBU and RRH, Where BBU is moved to the data center to be centralized to manage different RRHs through Fronthaul Common Public Radio […]

What is the difference between Private Networks and Network Slicing?

As per GSMA in the last white paper, Securing private networks in the 5G era Private Network A private (mobile) network is where network infrastructure is used exclusively by devices authorized by the end-user organization. The infrastructure is typically deployed in one or more specific locations owned or occupied by the organization. Devices that are […]

What is the difference between 4G and 5G Cell Sites?

4G cell sites 4G remote radio heads (RRHs) are typically mounted at the top of cell towers or on building rooftops. The ability to cover a large geographic area using radio frequencies in the sub‑3 GHz spectrum was ideal for these installations. A single sector would consist of an RRH connected through a small form-factor […]