What is the difference between 5G SA and NSA in Idle Mode?

System Information in 5G NSA vs. SA Deployment In NR non-standalone (NSA) deployment, the UE does not necessarily need to receive NR system information blocks (such as SIB1) or any NR paging messages because all the information can be sent to the UE through LTE control plane signaling in connected mode when the 5G Secondary […]

What is difference of the network slice selection in 4G and 5G networks?

In 4G network systems, it was near impossible to install new services in the network for a UE.  In the 5G network, the slice selection policy can be configured dynamically through URSP, while slice selection policy is pre-defined and cannot be changed dynamically in the 4G network. Through the URSP feature, 5G network operators can […]

What is the difference between CA and DC?

Carrier aggregation (CA) is one of two schemes included in 3GPP Release 15 that enables sending a duplicate of data across different carriers. CA allows for the use of the spectrum that is larger than the maximum channel bandwidth. Carrier aggregation is a technique used to increase the data rate per user, whereby multiple frequency […]

What Cloud-Native Network means?

The 5G architecture takes advantage of Cloud-Native concepts like self-contained functions within or across data centers (the cloud), communicating in a micro-services environment with all elements working together to deliver services and applications. The cloud-native 5G architecture enables an elastic, automated environment where network, compute and storage services can expand, and contract as needed. Many […]

What is Network Slicing in 5G?

Network slicing is an end-to-end concept covering all 5G network segments, including radio access, core, transport, and edge networks. In a 5G network, the underlying cloud infrastructure (physical, virtual or even emulated resources, RAN resources, etc.), that are bundled together to meet the requirements of a specific use case, e.g., bandwidth, latency, processing, and resiliency, […]

What is the mapping between 4G and 5G Core Network Elements?

The 5G NR system comes to provide a flexible platform, enabling a variety of applications and services with significant changes when compared with LTE architecture, supporting a wide range of new network requirements and functions, including the Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications (URLLC) and, in the future, the massive Machine-Type Communication (mMTC). Mapping […]

What are the IoT technology types?

Here is a simple comparison 

What is the difference between UPF and Control NFs in 5GC?

During studying in 3GPP TS 23.502, I found the network functions services for only the control part or Control Plane (CP) of 5G Core network, However, the UPF or User part is separated (not exist as below figure). But Why? 5G Core Network is based on SBA, The SBA architecture, fundamental in 5G’s move towards […]

What is the maximum 5G BW?

5G NR brings new spectrum opportunities that allow the operating bands to extend up to 52.6 GHz in Release 15. Considering different testing methods to verify the Radio Frequency (RF) and Radio Resource Management (RRM) requirements in a different frequency range, i.e., Over the Air (OTA) testing or conductive testing, two frequency ranges are categorized, […]

Do any current iPhone models support 5G?

To date, 15th June 2020. None of Apple’s current or previous iPhone models, including the iPhone 11, iPhone 11 Pro, and iPhone SE (2020), support 5G, and they never will because they require a hardware upgrade to connect to 5G networks. How fast is mobile data on current iPhones? The iPhone 11 Pro and iPhone […]

What are the 5G ZTE Radio Equipment?

Regarding the 5G AAU equipment, ZTE recommends using 64T64R AAU in dense urban areas to achieve the highest performance, and 16T16R AAU in urban and suburban areas to make a good balance between coverage and network construction costs. The 64T64R AAU consists of a large number of independent transceiver channels, which can support accurate horizontal […]