How Beams are Formed in Beamforming?
August 1, 2020

One of the most common questions I face every day What is Beamforming? How Beams are formed?, Actually I read some interesting topics from latest Huawei white paper about 8T8R Antenna Beamforming. let’s see the answer.  What are the Principles of 8T8R Beamforming? Beamforming is a digital signal processing technology that can be implemented on […]

Everything you need to know about [5G NSA Option 3X]
June 2, 2020

Option 3 Introduction The initial deployments of 5G services are based on 5G NSA, also called option-3. The variants of option-3 are option-3, option-3a and option-3x. Option-3/3a/3x is transparent to MME and P-GW and translates to an E-RAB modification procedure at MME. Option-3: Traffic is split across 4G and 5G at eNodeB. Option-3a: Traffic is […]

5G Voice over New Radio (VoNR)
May 27, 2020

VoNR is IMS based voice services that use 5G as the access network (as opposed to LTE and VoLTE) Introduction Voice over New Radio (VoNR) is the IP Multimedia System (IMS) based voice calling services that use the 5G network for its source of Internet Protocol (IP) voice processing. The New Radio network communication is […]

5G Releases 16 and 17 in 3GPP
April 27, 2020

Introduction The 2nd phase of 5G is being finalized in 3GPP, with the Rel-16 version of the specifications being frozen around June 2020. The 3GPP Plenary meetings in December 2019 decided the work program for the set of features to be included in Rel-17, which is scheduled for completion 15 months after Rel-16. Release 16 […]

Is there a relation between 5G and COVID-19?
March 19, 2020

Really I am writing this article due to two reasons, First that I received many questions about Is 5G Safe for Human? and Second that I shocked when I saw some of the social media posts on Facebook and Twitter that point out that the main reason for COVID-19 is 5G or using some 5G […]

5G New Radio Release 16 Enhancement
March 10, 2020

Release 16 is designed to be an 18-month project that wraps up at the end of 2019. The three key performance indicators for 5G are faster peak rates (the enhanced mobile broadband, eMBB), more connections per cell (massive machine-type communication, mMTC), and lower latency (ultra-reliable low-latency communications, URLLC). Most of Release 15 focused on the […]

What is the importance of vRAN in 5G?
February 22, 2020

As per the Ericsson Mobility Report, November 2019, by the end of 2025, we expect 5G to have 2.6 billion subscriptions covering up to 65 percent of the world’s population and generating 45 percent of the world’s total mobile data traffic, making it the fastest developing mobile communication technology to have ever been rolled out […]

RAN Virtualization in 5G Network
December 7, 2019

What is Virtualization? Virtualization means decoupling software from hardware, enabling mobile network operators to handle dynamic and challenging use cases, such as enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), massive connectivity (mIoT), and ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC). It allows you to use a physical machine’s full capacity by distributing its capabilities among many users or environments. […]

EPC Core Upgrade for 5G EN-DC
November 1, 2019

  At first, we need to identify the meaning of word EN–DC, It’s E-UTRAN New Radio Dual Connectivity. Simply it means the possibility of UE to get simultaneous data from LTE eNB and 5G gNB.  In EN-DC, the radio access network is composed of eNBs (eNodeBs) as the master node and gNBs (gNodeBs) as the […]

10 Learned Lessons from 5G Asia!
September 11, 2019

I summarized these #10 5G Learned Lessons from #5G_Asia and RCRWireless report about this big event  1- Operators should focus on replacing their legacy networks to pave the way to all IP networks, with new IT infrastructure rather than telco components.  2- A standalone 5G network requires a much more IT-centric approach to can support different use cases […]

August’s Recap: LinkedIn Posts
September 1, 2019

15 kHz as 5G Baseline Numerology 5G RRC States In 5G and the previous generations, the device can be in different states depending on the traffic activity. NR device can be in one of three RRC states, RRC_IDLE, RRC_ACTIVE, and RRC_INACTIVE. The first two RRC states, RRC_IDLE and RRC_CONNECTED, are similar to the counterparts in […]