Can Microwave be a Fronthaul Option for 5G?
May 12, 2024

First, we need to understand the definition of Fronthaul. Fronthaul is the transmission connection between the Radio Frequency (RF) module and the baseband processing Unit (BBU) in the mobile wireless network.  In the traditional distributed RAN or D-RAN, the fronthaul distance is short as the RF module and BBU are directly connected via optical fibers. […]

Why does 5G need to move from CPRI to eCPRI?
May 4, 2024

5G needs to move from CPRI to eCPRI because eCPRI uses standards-based Ethernet for fronthaul, replacing proprietary CPRI connectivity. This shift enables higher precision timing capabilities essential for vRAN and openRAN deployments on general-purpose server hardware, making the network more flexible and cost-effective. Why 5G needs moving from CPRI to eCPRI? eCPRI enhances 5G networks […]

The Security Transition from 4G EPC to 5GC
March 19, 2024

If you look at how security was addressed in the 4G core (EPC), you had perimeter devices, whether it’s firewalls, security devices that protect from denial of service attacks, or just security gateways at the periphery, and you had fewer vendors addressing the core infrastructure. So, if you have a single core vendor, the risk […]

Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTN) Trials in Saudi Arabia
December 10, 2023

No doubt that Saudi Arabia is moving faster towards digital transformation including Connectivity for everyone. For that reason, you can see many trials in the NTN program. This is a summary of each trial and a simple definition for it in Airborne What is 5G NTN? 5G NTN will enable seamless roaming between terrestrial and […]

Can Microwave be the right backhaul technology for 5G?
November 20, 2023

I read many papers during this year about the capabilities of microwave as a backhaul technology of 5G. I see also some claims that fiber is a mandatory technology for #5G backhauling due to the huge amount of data growth with the wider bandwidth in the spectrum in Sub-6GHz and mmWave which can exceed the 1Gpbs […]

Fixed Wireless Access Is ‘First Killer 5G Application’
November 1, 2023

Fixed Wireless Access (FWA), a wireless link that provides connectivity to objects that are stationary or nomadic, will receive a boost thanks to improved 5G capabilities. The first 5G use case we highlight is FWA. The demand for high-speed broadband connectivity continues to grow exponentially, driven by the increasing reliance on digital technologies and the […]

5G Core Network Functions (NFs)
October 28, 2023

The 5GC architecture relies on a “Service-Based Architecture” (SBA) framework, where the architecture elements are defined in terms of “Network Functions” (NFs) rather than by “traditional” Network Entities. Via interfaces of a common framework, any given NF offers its services to all the other authorized NFs and/or to any “consumers” that are permitted to make […]

Move your RAN Knowledge to Transport Experience
October 8, 2023

My telecom journey started 13 years ago in the access domain which more specifically we can call it RAN or Radio Access Network which mainly focuses is more towards Air interfaces including spectrum, RF elements, site components, RAN features, interfaces, protocols, …etc. However, in the last 7 years, I have seen a huge shift from […]

Power Consumption of 4G and 5G Networks
October 5, 2023

The fact of Sustainability in mobile networks starts with power reduction and meeting net-zero goals, and as we know wireless networks consume large amounts of resources, from electricity to raw materials. 📃 GSMA Intelligence published a report looking at network energy efficiency. It found that the RAN consumes 73% of the energy network operators use. 📃 Also, […]

The Power of 5G FWA
August 22, 2023

5G has made it possible for wireless networks to compete against fiber, satellite, xDSL, and cable in delivering high-speed broadband service to residences and businesses at attractive prices through FWA. What is FWA? Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) is a method of connecting subscribers to broadband Internet access using a wireless alternative to traditional copper cables and/or fiber. How does 5G […]

Why 100MHz in 5G is more efficient than 100MHz in LTE?
August 12, 2023

5G defines the use of wide radio channels. Whereas 4G is limited to a maximum radio channel size of 20 MHz, 5G standards specify the use of radio channels up to 100 MHz in frequency bands below 7 GHz and up to 400 MHz in mmWave radio channels at 24 GHz and higher. Beyond these […]