Call Session Control Function (CSCF) in IMS
January 23, 2023

The Call Session Control function (CSCF) is the heart of the IMS architecture and is used to process SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) signaling. The main function of the CSCF is to provide session control for terminals and applications using the IMS network. Session control includes: The secure routing of the SIP messages. Monitoring of the […]

3GPP Releases, Main Features from 3G to 4G
January 7, 2023

3GPP specifications cover cellular telecommunications technologies, including radio access, core network, and service capabilities, which provide a complete system description for mobile telecommunications. In general, there are many wireless technologies categorized as 3GPP technologies and non-3GPP technologies as below:  If we studied the 3GPP releases from 2G to 4G, we’ll see different releases from Rel […]

What is Control and User Plane Separation (CUPS)
November 30, 2022

Problem Statement As applications based on 5G become more widespread, the need for EPC to achieve higher speed and capacity communications, lower latency communications, and simultaneous connection of many terminals than ever have become urgent. So It needs to understand the main idea of the Separation between the Control and User plane in the EPC. […]

How to Prepare for VoLTE Interview?
November 23, 2022

How to Prepare for VoLTE Interview? 📗 Start Slowly with the Basic information of what is VoLTE, its Benefits, and its use cases. Also needs to understand the difference between CSFB and VoLTE -> which may take around 1 week if you dedicated 1 Hour per week. 📗 Advanced Level, Here you need to understand […]

The Evolution from 4G to 5G by CPRI to eCPRI Transformation
October 19, 2022

As per Statista, The number of global unique mobile subscribers is expected to grow by 160 million from 5.7 billion subscribers in 2020 to 5.86 billion in 2025 and this massive data growth means more expectations regarding the data speed, capacity, and customer experience.   4G technology provides the network architecture to transmit huge amounts […]

IMS Is The Core of VoLTE Network
September 13, 2022

Voice over LTE, or VoLTE is a GSMA profile of the standards defined for the delivery of services currently provided via Circuit Switch networks – mainly voice and SMS – over the Packet Switched only network of LTE, leveraging the core network IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). When mobile networks deploy LTE radio access technology, conformity […]

The Difference between SIBs in 4G and 5G
October 8, 2021

As you may know that UE can access the network if it can receive some of the System Information (SI) from the Cell (Mandatory). So Let’s understand the main difference between SIBs in 4G and 5G NR. 🧧 Difference Number 1 LTE MIB, SIB1, and SIB2 are mandatory for the UE to access a cell […]

Simplified Architecture for a Cellular Network
June 8, 2021

The device connects over the Radio Access Network (RAN), which defines and manages the radio link between the customer device and the rest of the network. The RAN comprises cellular base stations (BTS in 2G, NodeB in 3G,eNodeB in 4G, and gNB in 5G), wired or wireless links, and a baseband unit that processes the […]

What Drives QoE of a Service?
February 27, 2021

The accurate benchmarking and scoring of networks that cover large geographic areas requires careful consideration of a number of factors. These include the technology used, the extent of coverage offered, mobile device evolution, customer population distribution, network usage, and tariff offerings.  Best QoE [Quailty of Experience] in daily life for a customer guarantees satisfaction and […]

What is the Value of VoLTE?
August 16, 2019

VoLTE is the all-IP method that tightly links the voice application to the LTE network to assure the best subscriber experience in terms of performance, reliability, interoperability and global roaming. The Value of VoLTE It integrates voice with 4G LTE to ensure the critical reliability and quality of that voice service. It ensures subscribers continue […]

What Is the Difference between Static and Dynamic TDD?
May 24, 2019

Duplexing is one of the most important factors that impact the performance of 5G networks in terms of its wide-area coverage. 5G NR gives support to multiple duplex modes, that includes static TDD, FDD, and flexible duplexing. It is expected that 3.5GHz TDD is the first spectrum for early 5G deployments. Static TDD, the UL/DL […]