What is the difference between 4G Core and 5G Core?
June 15, 2021

In LTE Core Network, all data plane traffic must go through a single node type called Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW). This centralized architecture is advantageous in terms of operation and management. Yet, it could potentially pose a severe limitation when there is a huge amount of backhaul traffics in 5G. The following figure illustrates […]

Simplified Architecture for a Cellular Network
June 8, 2021

The device connects over the Radio Access Network (RAN), which defines and manages the radio link between the customer device and the rest of the network. The RAN comprises cellular base stations (BTS in 2G, NodeB in 3G,eNodeB in 4G, and gNB in 5G), wired or wireless links, and a baseband unit that processes the […]

What is DSS or Dynamic Spectrum Sharing – Part 1
May 6, 2021

Before start talking about DSS or Dynamic Spectrum Sharing, let’s address the problem first and how DSS can solve it. As we know that 5G can support newly released frequency bands for use – such as the C-band (3-5 GHz) and millimeter wave (mmWave) band (24-40 GHz) – are higher than the current 4G frequency […]

What is the Value of VoLTE?
August 16, 2019

VoLTE is the all-IP method that tightly links the voice application to the LTE network to assure the best subscriber experience in terms of performance, reliability, interoperability and global roaming. The Value of VoLTE It integrates voice with 4G LTE to ensure the critical reliability and quality of that voice service. It ensures subscribers continue […]

What Is the Difference between Static and Dynamic TDD?
May 24, 2019

Duplexing is one of the most important factors that impact the performance of 5G networks in terms of its wide-area coverage. 5G NR gives support to multiple duplex modes, that includes static TDD, FDD, and flexible duplexing. It is expected that 3.5GHz TDD is the first spectrum for early 5G deployments. Static TDD, the UL/DL […]

Why Should Operators Care about 5G Now?
October 19, 2018

Introduction  The December 2017 deadline for the primary set of New Radio (NR) technical specifications, known as early drop out/December acceleration, was finally achieved. – This acceleration was originally motivated to be updated with proprietary fixed wireless access solutions in mmW. – The early drop out scope is limited to Non Stand Alone (NSA) NR, […]

Modulation and Signal Quality in LTE
June 1, 2018

Depending on the modulation technique, each symbol stands for bits and each data point represents a different bit pattern.   QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM are used by LTE devices to modulate data and control information. The eNodeB supports all of these modulation techniques for the Down Link direction. However, 64QAM is optional in the Uplink direction. […]

Is There Compressed Mode in LTE?
May 18, 2018

During RRC_CONNECTED mode, if the eNodeB decides that the UE needs to perform LTE inter-frequency and inter-RAT monitoring activities, it will provide the UE with a measurement configuration which includes a monitoring gap pattern sequence. Similar mechanisms exist in UMTS (known as ‘Compressed Mode gaps’ and ‘FACH Measurement Occasions’ depending on the state and capabilities […]

LTE Radio Channels
May 4, 2018

Different channels are used for data to be transported through the LTE radio interface. These channels are used to separate the various types of data and allow the data to be transported across the radio network in an organized manner. Effectively the different channels provide interfaces to the higher layers within the LTE protocol structure […]