What is 5G Security Edge Protection Proxy (SEPP)?
January 12, 2023

The Security Edge Protection Proxy (SEPP) is a proxy that sits at the perimeter of the PLMN network and enables secured communication between inter-PLMN network messages. It protects the home network and acts as a security gateway. Located at the edge of the network, it polices connections between the home network and the visited networks. […]

Are 5G and WiFi6E Friends or Competitors?
January 10, 2023

When it comes to questioning, Are 5G and WiFi6E friends or competitors, I prefer to answer “They Should be Friends” 5G (cellular technology) and Wi-Fi 6E (wireless LAN) use similar technical methodologies to provide high-end user experiences. Both 5G and Wi-Fi 6E are the latest versions of their respective technologies. Two common approaches being used […]

5G is Not Hazardous To Your Health
September 26, 2022

All generations of mobile phone technology, including 5G, take the same familiar underlying approach. A mobile network consists of a nationwide grid of cell sites. These sites feature transmitters that generate radio waves, which are received by a mobile phone’s antenna.  The radio waves generated by mobile networks, TV stations, and radio stations are not […]

3GPP Architecture for 5G NR
September 21, 2022

As per 3GPP, The gNB is divided into two logical functions: the CU and DU. The DU is the baseband unit in a 5G RAN. It handles layer 1 and layer 2 processing and fulfills critical functions such as coding/decoding, scheduling, MIMO processing, and beamforming. It makes sub-millisecond decisions about allocating radio resources within a […]

5G 3GPP Releases from Release 15 to Release 18
September 16, 2022

5G is an evolving standard. The initial version of 5G was accomplished with the freezing of Release 15 late-drop in summer 2019. Enhanced features originally were introduced in Release 15 and new features were incorporated in Release 16 in 2020. More enhancements of features defined in prior releases and new features are part of Release […]

Why Is 5G Growth Faster Than The Previous Generations?
August 23, 2022

5G can be significantly faster than 4G, delivering up to 20 Gigabits-per-second (Gbps) peak data rates and 100+ Megabits-per-second (Mbps) average data rates. 5G has more capacity than 4G. 5G is designed to support a 100x increase in traffic capacity and network efficiency. 5G has lower latency than 4G. 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G all led […]

3GPP Yang Model for nrCellDU “5G SW Development”
August 22, 2022

3GPP TS 28.541 explains how Yang models are implemented in 5G gNB in gNB-CU and gNB-DU as below: The nrCellDU table models a geographical area of radio coverage that is implemented and supported by physical radio equipment for 5G NR GNB devices, These are contained in GNBDU Functions. Definition NRCELLDU represents the information of a cell […]

How 5G Drives Technical Efficiency Gains
July 24, 2022

5G builds upon existing network infrastructure to handle the increased demand for data in an interconnected society. It is transforming industries and is changing the way businesses and consumers use mobile technologies, providing substantial processing and efficiency benefits that previous generations of mobile technology did not. 5G can deliver up to 100 times higher bandwidth, […]

Why is C-Band Spectrum Important for 5G?
March 6, 2022

Not all radio spectrums are equal. Sub 1GHz offers the best coverage profile; however, the amount of low band spectrum available is limited. Frequency range two (FR2), i.e. greater than 6GHz, offers a large amount of spectrum with a significantly wide bandwidth (up to 400MHz), but it offers limited coverage. In fact, it is an […]

Functional Decomposition of the 5G RAN “Split Architecture”
December 10, 2021

In the high-level network architecture, the RAN is represented as a single functional entity whereas in reality the realization of a 5G RAN is not so straightforward. In GSM/GPRS and UMTS there was a network controller [BSC and RNC] which provided an interface between the radio access network and the core network. This network controller […]

Four Satellite “Sweet Spots” in the 5G Ecosystem
November 22, 2021

For mobile operators, 5G is far more than a faster version of the 4G/LTE standard. 5G will be an entirely new networking architecture — “a network of networks” — with multiple access technologies such as Wi-Fi, small cells, and traditional mobile wireless networks as well as terrestrial and satellite. Satellites will play a vital role […]