Why do MNOs struggle to shift to Open RAN?
March 7, 2021

Why do MNOs struggle to shift to Open RAN? I know many MNOs are struggling to shift their RAN strategy to OpenRAN in their 5G Roadmap due to many reasons like they can not get away from their monolithic supply chain from the big vendors. Also, there’re some interfaces that are still NOT open even if these […]

What Determines The Capacity Of A Network?
February 17, 2021

In the early 1900’s two researchers working independently derived a relatively simple equation that serves as a Moore’s Law for the wireless industry: the Shannon- Hartley theorem. This theorem gives an upper bound to the amount of information that can be transmitted over the wireless channel where the individual channel capacity is dependent on only […]

What is RAN Disaggregation?
February 16, 2021

In the cellular network, RAN provides wide-area wireless connectivity to mobile devices. Towards this end, it conducts two fundamental tasks: It converts IP packets to Physical Layer packets suitable for transmission over the time-varying mobile channel using packet and signal processing techniques. It conducts Radio Resource Management (RRM) control to determine how best to use […]

Does 5G Icon on Your Phone mean Real 5G?
February 12, 2021

Some friends asked me, Should we have a 5G good data rate when seeing 5G Icon on our phone? Mmmm… My answer should be Yes, However it’s the not right answer as there’re many technical items we need to discuss first before answering this question.  Let’s remember this famous incident/debate from US company AT&T when […]

5G Voice Service Solutions
February 7, 2021

In June 2018, as 3GPP announced that the standalone (SA) standards have been frozen, the standardization of 5G Core (5GC) is complete. 5G network commercialization has begun and the world-wide mainstream operators are dedicated to 5G network construction. According to 5G deployment options, 5G voice solutions not only include the target solution Voice over New […]

5G New Radio (NR) Release 15 Technologies
February 3, 2021

  5G New Radio (NR) 3GPP is defining 5G NR in Release 15, with an initial release for a non-standalone operation scheduled for March 2018 and a full release for a standalone version scheduled for September 2018. 5G New Radio Release 15 Focus: 5G NR Release 15 features: Ability to operate in any frequency band, […]

5G Commercial Network in Gulf Countries
February 2, 2021

The Gulf Countries (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Oman) are the front runner in the 5G Race. They started to think of 5G as early as Mid-2019. Use Cases: The main initial two uses cases are eMBB (Mobile) and FWA (Fixed Wireless Access). 5G Spectrum Band: The 5G Spectrum Auction is in two […]

INTER-gNB Xn handover procedure in 5G NR
January 26, 2021

The core of mobility management in 5G NR is very similar to the one in 4G LTE. As specified by 3GPP Rel. 15, mobility in mobile networks is divided into RRC_IDLE mobility, RRC_INACTIVE mobility, and RRC_CONNECTED mobility. RRC_IDLE and RRC_INACTIVE state in which UE does not have any established RRC connection. RRC_CONNECTED means that UE […]

5G Spectrum Bands to Address New Use Cases
January 24, 2021

The ITU-R IMT-2020 (5G) Vision includes three usage scenarios: eMBB, mMTC, and uRLLC. It also specifies the key capabilities of IMT-2020 which represent great improvements in comparison with the previous generation of IMT systems. To address diversified requirements from the envisioned usage scenarios in different phases of 5G, 5G needs access to “high”, “mid” and […]

What is the difference between 5G NSA Options 3/3a/3x?
January 14, 2021

When you are reading 3GPP TS 37.340 for 5G NR Release 15, you’ll find on Page 7, section 4 the definition of “Multi-RAT Dual Connectivity” or MR-DC and the definition is not new as it’s already mentioned before on 3GPP Release 14 TS 36.300.  The main idea of Dual Connectivity or DC, in general, is […]

The “Cherry” Release of O-RAN Open Software
January 12, 2021

The “Cherry” Release of O-RAN Open Software  • Cherry features significant advancements in the end-to-end integration of O-RAN Architecture components. • The software now contains new functions aligned with the latest O-RAN specifications, such as the E2, A1 or O1 interfaces. In December 2020, the O-RAN Software Community (OSC), working with the Linux Foundation, published […]