Call Session Control Function (CSCF) in IMS
January 23, 2023

The Call Session Control function (CSCF) is the heart of the IMS architecture and is used to process SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) signaling. The main function of the CSCF is to provide session control for terminals and applications using the IMS network. Session control includes: The secure routing of the SIP messages. Monitoring of the […]

What is 5G Security Edge Protection Proxy (SEPP)?
January 12, 2023

The Security Edge Protection Proxy (SEPP) is a proxy that sits at the perimeter of the PLMN network and enables secured communication between inter-PLMN network messages. It protects the home network and acts as a security gateway. Located at the edge of the network, it polices connections between the home network and the visited networks. […]

Are 5G and WiFi6E Friends or Competitors?
January 10, 2023

When it comes to questioning, Are 5G and WiFi6E friends or competitors, I prefer to answer “They Should be Friends” 5G (cellular technology) and Wi-Fi 6E (wireless LAN) use similar technical methodologies to provide high-end user experiences. Both 5G and Wi-Fi 6E are the latest versions of their respective technologies. Two common approaches being used […]

3GPP Releases, Main Features from 3G to 4G
January 7, 2023

3GPP specifications cover cellular telecommunications technologies, including radio access, core network, and service capabilities, which provide a complete system description for mobile telecommunications. In general, there are many wireless technologies categorized as 3GPP technologies and non-3GPP technologies as below:  If we studied the 3GPP releases from 2G to 4G, we’ll see different releases from Rel […]

The Best Analogy for OpenRAN is IKEA
January 6, 2023

For example, if we are looking at 5G RAN which is composed of a variety of subsystems including network elements such as the baseband unit (BBU) and remote radio Unit (RRU), and low-level software such as the operating system OS, containers, hardware including servers, Ethernet adapters and more. All of these elements in the OpenRAN […]

Why 5G needs moving from CPRI to eCPRI?
December 11, 2022

📗 CPRI is standardized by the Common Public Radio Interface forum with the first specification in 2003 with some features It is based on functional split 8 (Split E in eCPRI Specs.) between RF and Physical layer which means the legacy one. It covers user plane data, control plane transport mechanisms, and means for synchronization. […]

What is Control and User Plane Separation (CUPS)
November 30, 2022

Problem Statement As applications based on 5G become more widespread, the need for EPC to achieve higher speed and capacity communications, lower latency communications, and simultaneous connection of many terminals than ever have become urgent. So It needs to understand the main idea of the Separation between the Control and User plane in the EPC. […]

RIC Main Components: Non-RT RIC and Near-RT RIC
November 25, 2022

The RAN intelligent Controller (RIC) is cloud-native, and a central component of an open and virtualized RAN network. The RIC aligns with 3GPP release 15 and beyond. It is foundational to enabling network programmability, intelligence, and disaggregation in a modern network. It is an essential component of the Open RAN architecture. The RIC architecture includes […]

What is the difference between look-aside Acceleration and inline Acceleration ?
November 24, 2022

Open RAN by disaggregation involves CU (Centralized Unit) and DU (Distributed Unit) virtualization. By decoupling hardware and software, Open RAN makes it possible to select different vendors and solutions for hardware and software and to manage their lifecycles separately. More specifically, this makes it possible to use COTS (Commercial off-the-shelf) general-purpose hardware in the RAN […]

How To Start Your Open RAN Career?

The Open RAN concept is based on open and standardized interfaces, which grant interoperability. Thus, it enables multiple vendors to provide different parts of hardware and software. 🧧 Although various network elements come from numerous vendors and are pro vendors to proprietary, they are designed to work together with other vendors’ products. In addition, open […]

How to Prepare for VoLTE Interview?
November 23, 2022

How to Prepare for VoLTE Interview? 📗 Start Slowly with the Basic information of what is VoLTE, its Benefits, and its use cases. Also needs to understand the difference between CSFB and VoLTE -> which may take around 1 week if you dedicated 1 Hour per week. 📗 Advanced Level, Here you need to understand […]

What is the difference between Non-RT RIC and Near-RT RIC?
November 8, 2022

First, We need to know that the most important functional components introduced by O-RAN are the non-real-time (non-RT) radio intelligent controller (RIC) and the near-RT RIC. While the former is hosted by the service management and orchestration (SMO) framework of the system (e.g., integrated within ONAP), the latter may be co-located with 3GPP gNB functions, […]

The Evolution from 4G to 5G by CPRI to eCPRI Transformation
October 19, 2022

As per Statista, The number of global unique mobile subscribers is expected to grow by 160 million from 5.7 billion subscribers in 2020 to 5.86 billion in 2025 and this massive data growth means more expectations regarding the data speed, capacity, and customer experience.   4G technology provides the network architecture to transmit huge amounts […]

Open RAN Changes Your RAN Mindset!
October 13, 2022

The RAN has been considered the most expensive part of network deployment. RAN consists of around 60-70% of the network Capex. The Open RAN (Open Radio Access Network (RAN) Journey is about changing the mindset and accepting the fact that Open RAN is not a new technology we need to test, however, it’s the future […]

How Much Cost Is Saved by RAN Virtualization?
September 28, 2022

Virtualized radio access networks (vRANs) are a way for telecommunications operators to run their baseband functions as software. One of the primary benefits of virtualizing radio access networks (RANs) is that RAN functions no longer require special proprietary hardware to run, and can instead be run on standard servers. This is achieved by applying the […]

5G is Not Hazardous To Your Health
September 26, 2022

All generations of mobile phone technology, including 5G, take the same familiar underlying approach. A mobile network consists of a nationwide grid of cell sites. These sites feature transmitters that generate radio waves, which are received by a mobile phone’s antenna.  The radio waves generated by mobile networks, TV stations, and radio stations are not […]

3GPP Architecture for 5G NR
September 21, 2022

As per 3GPP, The gNB is divided into two logical functions: the CU and DU. The DU is the baseband unit in a 5G RAN. It handles layer 1 and layer 2 processing and fulfills critical functions such as coding/decoding, scheduling, MIMO processing, and beamforming. It makes sub-millisecond decisions about allocating radio resources within a […]

5G 3GPP Releases from Release 15 to Release 18
September 16, 2022

5G is an evolving standard. The initial version of 5G was accomplished with the freezing of Release 15 late-drop in summer 2019. Enhanced features originally were introduced in Release 15 and new features were incorporated in Release 16 in 2020. More enhancements of features defined in prior releases and new features are part of Release […]

The Complete Guide to O-RAN Alliance
September 15, 2022

What is O-RAN Alliance? O-RAN Alliance is a global alliance founded in 2018. As of June 2022, the O-RAN Alliance had 345 members and contributors (O-RAN Alliance only allows communication service providers as members, all other companies and entities are considered to be contributors). This includes communication service providers (CSP) and vendors, as well as […]

IMS Is The Core of VoLTE Network
September 13, 2022

Voice over LTE, or VoLTE is a GSMA profile of the standards defined for the delivery of services currently provided via Circuit Switch networks – mainly voice and SMS – over the Packet Switched only network of LTE, leveraging the core network IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). When mobile networks deploy LTE radio access technology, conformity […]