When should MNOs shut down their 2G and 3G Networks?
August 8, 2022

Many of my friends asked me why MNOs (Mobile Network Operators) didn’t switch-off legacy networks like 2G and 3G till now. Yes, this is a good question specially day-by-day I am talking about the benefits and the power of 5G. With the smartphone revolution and the rapid growth in wireless data services, operators worldwide are […]

What is the Accelerating Card in Open RAN World?
August 2, 2022

On the road to 4G and 5G, MNO (Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) started to think of vRAN (Virtual RAN) and Open RAN, the main difference between them you can find here.  vRAN and Open RAN architectures help for higher channel capacity and easier deployment of edge-based services and applications. vRAN and Open RAN solutions are […]

O-RAN ALLIANCE Specifications and Working Groups
July 25, 2022

The O-RAN Alliance (O-RAN) is a group that is defining specifications for radio access networks. It is a global alliance founded in 2018 and it is now comprised of close to 30 operators and more than 200 vendor companies. The O-RAN Alliance is a relatively new organization that took the 3GPP standards work as its […]

How 5G Drives Technical Efficiency Gains
July 24, 2022

5G builds upon existing network infrastructure to handle the increased demand for data in an interconnected society. It is transforming industries and is changing the way businesses and consumers use mobile technologies, providing substantial processing and efficiency benefits that previous generations of mobile technology did not. 5G can deliver up to 100 times higher bandwidth, […]

How The RIC is A Key Element in O-RAN Architecture?
July 21, 2022

In this article, I’d like to give more focus on a powerful component in the Open Radio Access Network (Open RAN) Architecture that will make an amazing shift in the RAN Automation world. Open radio access networks promise to unlock massive innovation, creating new opportunities for service providers to deliver differentiated services to consumers, businesses, […]

What is the difference between rApps and xApps?
June 30, 2022

In the Open RAN, one of the key aspects of Open RAN is going to be the fact that the intelligence in the RAN can now be supplied by a variety of vendors, as opposed to earlier generations and in the traditional RAN where all the RAN intelligence or most of the RAN intelligence was […]

What the Open RAN Main Components?
June 3, 2022

Open RAN disaggregates the RAN into main 3 components as below: 🧧 Upper Layer Split Central Unit (CU) • Logical node that includes a portion of the eNB/gNB functions as defined by split option 2 (PDCP RLC). • CU can support many O-DUs. 🧧 Lower Layer Split Distributed Unit (DU) • Logical node that includes a […]

Why RAN Must Be OPEN?
May 25, 2022

RAN (Radio Access Network) is the main telecommunication network component that is located between the core network and users’ equipment (such as a mobile phone). RAN is constituted of a Radio Unit (RU), which is the antenna visible on top of a cell tower, and a Baseband Unit (BBU), a set of devices linking the […]

How Much Cost Is Saved by RAN Virtualization?
May 16, 2022

Virtualized radio access networks (vRANs) are a way for telecommunications operators to run their baseband functions as software. One of the primary benefits of virtualizing radio access networks (RANs) is that RAN functions no longer require special proprietary hardware to run, and can instead be run on standard servers. This is achieved by applying the […]

Everything You Have To Know About PTP or Precision Time Protocol?
May 13, 2022

Introduction Several time synchronization mechanisms can be used in a network. The most common standards are Network Time Protocol (NTP) and Precision Time Protocol (PTP). NTP, which is the older, well-known protocol, is currently in its fourth version. NTP was primarily developed to achieve accuracy in the submillisecond range and is widely implemented for network […]

What are C/U/M/S Fronthaul (FH) Planes in ORAN ?
May 5, 2022

O-RAN’s proposed concepts and architectures use a split-RAN concept. There are 8 known ways to functionally split the RAN, and each one proposes splitting the processing so that different parts of the protocol stack process on different hardware. The below Figure summarizes the eight options. O-RAN has specified a version of the 7-2 split. The […]

Open RAN Interoperability Between Multi-Vendor!
April 17, 2022

For the introduction of RAN functions disaggregation and open interfaces in 5G, 3GPP has in Release 15 specified a Higher Layer Split (HLS) option of the gNB, which is also known as the Option 2 NR-PDCP split option. In this option, the gNB may consist of a Central Unit (gNB-CU) and one or more gNB […]

Why Do We Need to Change the RAN Mindset?
April 6, 2022

First, We need to understand the most important question, Why do we need to change our RAN from a traditional setup to a more flexible one? The Answer is: Heavy Data Growth Each new mobile technology generation has delivered greater data rates to mobile devices, and mobile users have moved more and more of their […]

Why 7.2x split is the Best Split Option?
March 13, 2022

O-RAN’s proposed concepts and architectures use a split-RAN concept. There are eight known ways to functionally split the RAN, and each one proposes splitting the processing so that different parts of the protocol stack process on different hardware. The below figure summarizes the eight options: O-RAN proposes using option 7-2 which splits the physical layer […]

Why is C-Band Spectrum Important for 5G?
March 6, 2022

Not all radio spectrums are equal. Sub 1GHz offers the best coverage profile; however, the amount of low band spectrum available is limited. Frequency range two (FR2), i.e. greater than 6GHz, offers a large amount of spectrum with a significantly wide bandwidth (up to 400MHz), but it offers limited coverage. In fact, it is an […]

Summary of the 5G Interfering with Aviation Safety in the US
January 20, 2022

Federal Communications Commission FCC auctioned the C-band spectrum between 3.7-3.98 GHz in early 2021. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has warned that the new 5G technology could interfere with instruments such as altimeters, which measure how far above the ground an airplane is traveling. The Pentagon believes, the focus should be on preventing interference to […]

Functional Decomposition of the 5G RAN “Split Architecture”
December 10, 2021

In the high-level network architecture, the RAN is represented as a single functional entity whereas in reality the realization of a 5G RAN is not so straightforward. In GSM/GPRS and UMTS there was a network controller [BSC and RNC] which provided an interface between the radio access network and the core network. This network controller […]

The Road to Open RAN
December 3, 2021

The Road to Open RAN is not easy one, there are a series of steps should be taken before migration or starting design the network architecture based on Open RAN. Either you’re a green field needs to start a new network from scratch or even a brown field and re-think of the open RAN concept, […]

Four Satellite “Sweet Spots” in the 5G Ecosystem
November 22, 2021

For mobile operators, 5G is far more than a faster version of the 4G/LTE standard. 5G will be an entirely new networking architecture — “a network of networks” — with multiple access technologies such as Wi-Fi, small cells, and traditional mobile wireless networks as well as terrestrial and satellite. Satellites will play a vital role […]