What is the difference between EPC,EPC+ and 5GC?
July 24, 2021

The core network is the most important domain in the mobile network starting from 2G and 3G while the MSC and SGSN are the main functions there to EPC or Evolved packet Core, then EPC+ in 4G network and finally 5GC or 5G Core in 5G Network. However, there are many differences between EPC, EPC+, […]

5G Security Vs. 4G Security
July 18, 2021

5G Timeline and Standardization  During preparation, it was decided to split Phase 1 into two parts. In December 2017, standardization of the non-autonomous, or Non-Standalone, architecture for 5G New Radio (NR) was completed. This first official set of 5G standards defines the wireless air interface for interworking with existing LTE-based networks. This has allowed operators […]

Open Interfaces by O-RAN Alliance
July 11, 2021

The O-RAN ALLIANCE e.V. specifies profiles for 3GPP RAN interfaces to achieve interoperability among different vendors. So far, profiles for open X2, open Xn, and open F1 interfaces have been published. Open X2 enables operators providing 5G Non-StandAlone to introduce 5G NR base stations (gNBs) independently of the vendor providing 4G LTE base stations (eNBs). Open Xn […]

What Is The Importance of RIC?
July 5, 2021

O-RAN Alliance came up with RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC) to enable AI/ML-based RRM optimization, and which is expected to be merged with the existing central Self-Organizing Network (SON) function. Traditional RAN can’t achieve the next-generation RAN activities from operational efficiency, automation of configuration and optimization activities, and customer level-specific service assurance. As next-gen RAN will […]

What does 5G Cloud Native means?
June 24, 2021

What is Cloud Native? In general, “cloud-native” is an approach to building and running applications that exploit the advantages of the cloud computing model. One key attribute of “cloud-native” is how the system creates and deploys applications. According to the definition of CNCF, “cloud-native” means that an application is containerized and uses an open-source software […]

3GPP Releases 16 Features
June 22, 2021

The evolution of 5G New Radio (NR) has progressed swiftly since the 3GPP standardized the first NR release (release 15) in mid-2018. Not only is release 16 nearly finalized but the scope of release 17 has also recently been approved.  3GPP plans to evolve 5G in three phases: Phase 1 – 3GPP Release 15 provided […]

Why Open RAN is Important?
June 21, 2021

If we’re talking about RAN Market Status, The mobile RAN equipment market (covering active base station equipment and antennas, but excluding power supplies, cable, install costs, civils, passive antennas, etc.) was worth about $33 billion in 2019, according to Omdia, and is forecast to grow to $36 billion in 2023.  So the R&D in different […]

What is the difference between 4G Core and 5G Core?
June 15, 2021

In LTE Core Network, all data plane traffic must go through a single node type called Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW). This centralized architecture is advantageous in terms of operation and management. Yet, it could potentially pose a severe limitation when there is a huge amount of backhaul traffics in 5G. The following figure illustrates […]

Simplified Architecture for a Cellular Network
June 8, 2021

The device connects over the Radio Access Network (RAN), which defines and manages the radio link between the customer device and the rest of the network. The RAN comprises cellular base stations (BTS in 2G, NodeB in 3G,eNodeB in 4G, and gNB in 5G), wired or wireless links, and a baseband unit that processes the […]

5G Commercial Live Network in Middle East,May 2021
May 25, 2021

This is the last update for the 5G Commercial Live Network in the Middle East till 25th, May 2021 Let’s see the status of 5G Live Commercial Network in the Middle East Saudi Arabia: In June 2019, STC became the first operator to launch 5G commercial services in Saudi Arabia. Zain’s 5G network also went live […]

What is DSS or Dynamic Spectrum Sharing – Part 2
May 11, 2021

As we discussed in the last article, let’s Recap again What is DSS and why we need to use the DSS feature in 5G Roadmap deployment. Due to the occupation of its FDD-based spectrum assets, service providers are forced to choose between the acquisition of a new spectrum or refarm spectrum already in use. Both […]

What is DSS or Dynamic Spectrum Sharing – Part 1
May 6, 2021

Before start talking about DSS or Dynamic Spectrum Sharing, let’s address the problem first and how DSS can solve it. As we know that 5G can support newly released frequency bands for use – such as the C-band (3-5 GHz) and millimeter wave (mmWave) band (24-40 GHz) – are higher than the current 4G frequency […]

What Do You Know About Starlink?
May 4, 2021

What is Starlink? Starlink is a satellite internet constellation currently being constructed by SpaceX to provide planet-wide broadband satellite Internet access. The constellation will consist of thousands of mass-produced small satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) working in combination with ground transceivers. SpaceX also plans to sell some of the satellites for military, scientific, or […]

What is the difference between Traditional RAN and Open RAN?
April 16, 2021

Open and virtualized RAN, Open vRAN refers to a disaggregated approach of deploying virtualized mobile networks by using open and interoperable protocols and interfaces, implemented over a common propose hardware in a multi-vendor software environment, allowing increased flexibility over traditional RAN architectures., aiming to provide OPEX and CAPEX savings while fostering innovation. Traditional RAN Protocol […]

Industry Alliances and Organizations 3GPP,O-RAN and TIP
April 6, 2021

Industry Alliances and Organizations Multiple industry groups are working on 5G deployments and standards. These groups include: O-RAN Alliance: A group of telecom companies focused on fostering wireless networks that are open software-defined and virtualized, enabling architects to mix and match products from different In 2018, the xRAN and C-RAN organizations merged to form O-RAN. […]

Functional Split Options for 5G Networks
April 5, 2021

Functional Split Options for 5G Networks As network architects work to meet the 5G challenges of increased traffic and data flows, a fundamental question is how much intelligence to put near the antenna versus at the DUs or CUs. Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) as well as industry-standards groups, such as the 3GPP, IEEE, Telecom Infra […]

The Importance of RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC) in O-RAN Architecture
April 1, 2021

The main motive for the RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC) is to bring software-defined controllability to RAN to increase system performance as on the path towards 5G, with network densification, and availability of different types of spectrum bands, it is increasingly a more difficult task to optimally allocate radio resources, implement handovers, manage interference, balance load […]