What is The Importance of Network Slicing?
October 9, 2021

As 5G supports different types of use cases from eMBB, URLLC, and MTCs. These services require strict SLA (Service Level Agreements) which requires a dedicated end-to-end channel for each service. Exciting networks are not equipped or scalable enough to support such demands, So the solution to realize the full extend of 5G performance is Network […]

The Difference between SIBs in 4G and 5G
October 8, 2021

As you may know that UE can access the network if it can receive some of the System Information (SI) from the Cell (Mandatory). So Let’s understand the main difference between SIBs in 4G and 5G NR. 🧧 Difference Number 1 LTE MIB, SIB1, and SIB2 are mandatory for the UE to access a cell […]

What is the difference between vRAN and Open RAN?
September 28, 2021

It is important to distinguish between vRAN and Open RAN Virtualization is a journey that the telecoms industry has been on for several years to transform network functions into virtual network functions (VNFs). The VNF software is then decoupled from the purpose-built hardware and run on standardized, common off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. The interfaces between each […]

How To Search 3GPP Website and Find The Right Document/Release?
September 18, 2021

If you are in the Mobile Telecom domain especially Testing, Research, deployment domains, you have to be familiar with How to make deep research in the 3GPP website for the keywords you need to search for. First, you have to know the Specification Numbering you need to search in, you can find all of them […]

O-RAN Fronthaul 7-2x in One Page
September 7, 2021

In Split 7.2x: Low PHY/High PHY split, The Low PHY/High PHY split is the most acceptable approach for it is less complex and it supports various fronthaul requirements and most importantly it has high virtualization benefits. Split 7.2x is the O-RAN Alliance fronthaul specification between O-DU to O-RU. It has two variants: 7.2a and 7.2b based […]

What is vRAN?
September 5, 2021

vRAN is a new architecture enhancing the flexibility of Centralized RAN (C-RAN) by virtualizing the functions of basebands in a common resource pool made up of the Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) servers located in a centralized Hub, allocating resources in a flexible manner according to traffic conditions. vRAN = Virtual Radio Access Network Why vRAN? Maintaining […]

RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC) Use Cases
August 29, 2021

O-RAN Alliance has committed to evolving Radio Access Networks (RAN) around the world. Future RANs will be built on a foundation of virtualized network elements, white-box hardware, and standardized interfaces that fully embrace O-RAN’s core principles of intelligence and openness. An ecosystem of innovative new products is already emerging that will form the underpinnings of […]

O-RAN Alliance, TIP, ONF and Open RAN Policy Coalition
August 27, 2021

There are several industry-led open RAN initiatives that seek to unite an ecosystem of supply chain partners and advance open RAN through the definition, development, and testing of standards and reference architectures. Beyond the standards defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), multiple industry groups are leading the open RAN movement, each with a […]

vRAN Shouldn’t be Equal to Open RAN nor ORAN
August 20, 2021

There are different acronyms related to the evolution of RAN (Radio Access Network), like vRAN, open RAN, O-RAN, etc.  A key point to clarify is that RAN evolution means both the disaggregation of mobile network base stations into more standardized entities (this is widely known as functional split), as well as the introduction of cloud […]

Why Do We Need a New OSS/Orchestration in Open RAN?
August 8, 2021

Open RAN is a highly disruptive technology that will bring many benefits to Mobile Network Operators (MNOs), especially during the evolution to 5G. By opening up the RAN to multiple vendors and virtualizing the software, costs will be significantly reduced, highly dynamic services will be enabled, and the RAN domain will experience far greater levels […]

Open Interfaces by O-RAN Alliance
July 30, 2021

The O-RAN ALLIANCE e.V. specifies profiles for 3GPP RAN interfaces to achieve interoperability among different vendors. So far, profiles for open X2, open Xn, and open F1 interfaces have been published. Open X2 enables operators providing 5G Non-StandAlone to introduce 5G NR base stations (gNBs) independently of the vendor providing 4G LTE base stations (eNBs). Open Xn […]

What is the difference between EPC,EPC+ and 5GC?
July 24, 2021

The core network is the most important domain in the mobile network starting from 2G and 3G while the MSC and SGSN are the main functions there to EPC or Evolved packet Core, then EPC+ in 4G network and finally 5GC or 5G Core in 5G Network. However, there are many differences between EPC, EPC+, […]

5G Security Vs. 4G Security
July 18, 2021

5G Timeline and Standardization  During preparation, it was decided to split Phase 1 into two parts. In December 2017, standardization of the non-autonomous, or Non-Standalone, architecture for 5G New Radio (NR) was completed. This first official set of 5G standards defines the wireless air interface for interworking with existing LTE-based networks. This has allowed operators […]

What Is The Importance of RIC?
July 5, 2021

O-RAN Alliance came up with RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC) to enable AI/ML-based RRM optimization, and which is expected to be merged with the existing central Self-Organizing Network (SON) function. Traditional RAN can’t achieve the next-generation RAN activities from operational efficiency, automation of configuration and optimization activities, and customer level-specific service assurance. As next-gen RAN will […]

What does 5G Cloud Native means?
June 24, 2021

What is Cloud Native? In general, “cloud-native” is an approach to building and running applications that exploit the advantages of the cloud computing model. One key attribute of “cloud-native” is how the system creates and deploys applications. According to the definition of CNCF, “cloud-native” means that an application is containerized and uses an open-source software […]

3GPP Releases 16 Features
June 22, 2021

The evolution of 5G New Radio (NR) has progressed swiftly since the 3GPP standardized the first NR release (release 15) in mid-2018. Not only is release 16 nearly finalized but the scope of release 17 has also recently been approved.  3GPP plans to evolve 5G in three phases: Phase 1 – 3GPP Release 15 provided […]

Why Open RAN is Important?
June 21, 2021

If we’re talking about RAN Market Status, The mobile RAN equipment market (covering active base station equipment and antennas, but excluding power supplies, cable, install costs, civils, passive antennas, etc.) was worth about $33 billion in 2019, according to Omdia, and is forecast to grow to $36 billion in 2023.  So the R&D in different […]

What is the difference between 4G Core and 5G Core?
June 15, 2021

In LTE Core Network, all data plane traffic must go through a single node type called Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW). This centralized architecture is advantageous in terms of operation and management. Yet, it could potentially pose a severe limitation when there is a huge amount of backhaul traffics in 5G. The following figure illustrates […]

Simplified Architecture for a Cellular Network
June 8, 2021

The device connects over the Radio Access Network (RAN), which defines and manages the radio link between the customer device and the rest of the network. The RAN comprises cellular base stations (BTS in 2G, NodeB in 3G,eNodeB in 4G, and gNB in 5G), wired or wireless links, and a baseband unit that processes the […]