The Top 10 most-read articles in 2023 on Moniem Tech
February 28, 2024

In this article, I summarize the top 10 most-read articles in 2023 on my website as below: What are C/U/M/S Fronthaul (FH) Planes in ORAN? https://lnkd.in/d4Ts_kfJ  Why 7.2x split is the Best Split Option? https://lnkd.in/dKECHY9W  What is The Difference between MORAN and MOCN? https://lnkd.in/gFVqF8hM  Everything You Have To Know About PTP or Precision Time Protocol? […]

My view for vRAN and OpenRAN Success
February 22, 2024

vRAN and OpenRAN are not new generations like 4G, 5G, or even 6G. It’s a new way of implementing of access domain in a new way helping at the end to improve the flexibility, cost, and agility in the RAN domain. Some points should be considered below: Selecting the right vendor that has a good solution that […]

Home Subscriber Server in One Page
February 2, 2024

Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is the main subscriber database used within the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) which provides details of the subscribers to other entities within the network. 

Why do we need Accelerator Cards in Open vRAN Solutions?
January 12, 2024

Open RAN by disaggregation involves CU (Centralized Unit) and DU (Distributed Unit) virtualization. By decoupling hardware and software, Open RAN makes it possible to select different vendors and solutions for hardware and software and to manage their lifecycles separately. More specifically, this makes it possible to use COTS (Commercial off-the-shelf) general-purpose hardware in the RAN and avoid […]

2G and 3G Shut down Status – 2023
January 9, 2024

More pressure now on all MNOs to improve their spectrum utilization and resource efficiency to the maximum to cover all upcoming use cases that need different QoS and requirements. One of the most promising solutions is to shut down the legacy network technologies 2G and/or 3G to utilize their spectrum towards 4G or/and 5G. As […]

What is VoLTE Roaming? Architecture Options and Challenges 
January 1, 2024

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) architecture has introduced a subsystem known as the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) as an addition to the Packet-Switched (PS) domain. IMS supports new, IP-based multimedia services as well as interoperability with traditional telephony services. Voice Over LTE (VoLTE) is the technology to provide Voice service over LTE, However, not […]

What is SS7, Benefits and Limitations?
December 14, 2023

The telecommunications industry heavily relies on various protocols to facilitate the exchange of information between different network elements. One of the most important protocols in this context is the SS7 protocol. What is SS7? The SS7 protocol (Signaling System 7) is a set of signaling protocols used to control the setup, management, and teardown of […]

Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTN) Trials in Saudi Arabia
December 10, 2023

No doubt that Saudi Arabia is moving faster towards digital transformation including Connectivity for everyone. For that reason, you can see many trials in the NTN program. This is a summary of each trial and a simple definition for it in Airborne What is 5G NTN? 5G NTN will enable seamless roaming between terrestrial and […]

Can Microwave be the right backhaul technology for 5G?
November 20, 2023

I read many papers during this year about the capabilities of microwave as a backhaul technology of 5G. I see also some claims that fiber is a mandatory technology for #5G backhauling due to the huge amount of data growth with the wider bandwidth in the spectrum in Sub-6GHz and mmWave which can exceed the 1Gpbs […]

Fixed Wireless Access Is ‘First Killer 5G Application’
November 1, 2023

Fixed Wireless Access (FWA), a wireless link that provides connectivity to objects that are stationary or nomadic, will receive a boost thanks to improved 5G capabilities. The first 5G use case we highlight is FWA. The demand for high-speed broadband connectivity continues to grow exponentially, driven by the increasing reliance on digital technologies and the […]

5G Core Network Functions (NFs)
October 28, 2023

The 5GC architecture relies on a “Service-Based Architecture” (SBA) framework, where the architecture elements are defined in terms of “Network Functions” (NFs) rather than by “traditional” Network Entities. Via interfaces of a common framework, any given NF offers its services to all the other authorized NFs and/or to any “consumers” that are permitted to make […]

Nokia Open Fronthaul for Open RAN
October 12, 2023

Nokia goes further into this OpenRAN game by opening its fronthaul interface with three 3rd party vendors now. Nokia has already integrated third-party TDD RRH from three suppliers with its Baseband, and the solution is available today. Nokia AirScale Baseband is qualified for commercial Open RAN deployments for both TDD RRH (FR1) and mmWave (FR2) […]

Move your RAN Knowledge to Transport Experience
October 8, 2023

My telecom journey started 13 years ago in the access domain which more specifically we can call it RAN or Radio Access Network which mainly focuses is more towards Air interfaces including spectrum, RF elements, site components, RAN features, interfaces, protocols, …etc. However, in the last 7 years, I have seen a huge shift from […]

Power Consumption of 4G and 5G Networks
October 5, 2023

The fact of Sustainability in mobile networks starts with power reduction and meeting net-zero goals, and as we know wireless networks consume large amounts of resources, from electricity to raw materials. 📃 GSMA Intelligence published a report looking at network energy efficiency. It found that the RAN consumes 73% of the energy network operators use. 📃 Also, […]

3G Shutdown is a MUST step for all MNOs!
September 21, 2023

This is not the first time we discussed the 3G Shutdown or Sunset topic, however, this time the numbers will talk 🙂 All UK mobile network operators have committed to closing their 3G networks. Vodafone UK, like EE, is planning to switch off its 3G network in early 2024. Three UK is planning to sunset […]

Is Microwave Oven Safe?
September 7, 2023

If you’re a Telecom Engineer and Hungry, this article is for you 🙂 During my discussion with my non-telecom friend, he was asking about the Telecom tower’s radiation and how it’s radiating the signals to the mobile equipment and then asked about the radiation of MicrowaveOven! Here, I remembered when I searched for this topic 13 […]

What is a Multi-IMSI SIM?
August 26, 2023

At a conceptual level, the SIM identifies the subscriber to the network and enables this identity to be securely authenticated. When a device connects to a network, the SIM in the device sends the network its IMISI, and then it passes the network a key. On the network side, there is a list of IDs and a […]

The Power of 5G FWA
August 22, 2023

5G has made it possible for wireless networks to compete against fiber, satellite, xDSL, and cable in delivering high-speed broadband service to residences and businesses at attractive prices through FWA. What is FWA? Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) is a method of connecting subscribers to broadband Internet access using a wireless alternative to traditional copper cables and/or fiber. How does 5G […]

Why 100MHz in 5G is more efficient than 100MHz in LTE?
August 12, 2023

5G defines the use of wide radio channels. Whereas 4G is limited to a maximum radio channel size of 20 MHz, 5G standards specify the use of radio channels up to 100 MHz in frequency bands below 7 GHz and up to 400 MHz in mmWave radio channels at 24 GHz and higher. Beyond these […]

What is 5G Non-terrestrial network (NTN) Solution?
August 5, 2023

From the perspective of global network coverage, more than 80% of land areas and 95% of sea areas are not covered by ground cellular networks. The 5G network was built not only to provide high network speeds, but also ubiquitous mobile network access. However, in remote areas such as mountainous areas, deserts, and the ocean, […]

What is Access Gateway Function (AGF)?
July 20, 2023

5G delivers higher data speeds, and lower latency, and supports more users, devices, and services while simultaneously improving network efficiency. As defined by the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), the 5G core (5GC) network is a cloud-aligned, service-based architecture (SBA) and covers all 5G functions and interactions. The converged 5GC lays the foundation for a single […]

5G Transport Network Architecture
July 15, 2023

📕 5G network comprises a remote radio unit (RRU), distributed unit (DU), a centralized unit (CU), and a core network. The terms fronthaul, midhaul, and backhaul are describing the 5G transport network support for the interfaces between these nodes. 📕 A Fronthaul transport network supports the low-layer functional split point of 3GPP NG-RAN (e.g., Option […]

5G Standalone (SA) Will Change Telecom Industry
July 1, 2023

📗 In 5G SA, NR will enable the service provisioning through gNB (gNodeB) which connects to the new core 5GC (5G Core Network) using NG Interface. 📗 According to GSMA, by 2025, 5G networks will cover a third of the population (measuring 1.8 billion connections) and as per GSA, 116 operators are identified as investing in […]