3G Shutdown is a MUST step for all MNOs!
September 21, 2023

This is not the first time we discussed the 3G Shutdown or Sunset topic, however, this time the numbers will talk 🙂 All UK mobile network operators have committed to closing their 3G networks. Vodafone UK, like EE, is planning to switch off its 3G network in early 2024. Three UK is planning to sunset […]

Is Microwave Oven Safe?
September 7, 2023

If you’re a Telecom Engineer and Hungry, this article is for you 🙂 During my discussion with my non-telecom friend, he was asking about the Telecom tower’s radiation and how it’s radiating the signals to the mobile equipment and then asked about the radiation of MicrowaveOven! Here, I remembered when I searched for this topic 13 […]

What is a Multi-IMSI SIM?
August 26, 2023

At a conceptual level, the SIM identifies the subscriber to the network and enables this identity to be securely authenticated. When a device connects to a network, the SIM in the device sends the network its IMISI, and then it passes the network a key. On the network side, there is a list of IDs and a […]

The Power of 5G FWA
August 22, 2023

5G has made it possible for wireless networks to compete against fiber, satellite, xDSL, and cable in delivering high-speed broadband service to residences and businesses at attractive prices through FWA. What is FWA? Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) is a method of connecting subscribers to broadband Internet access using a wireless alternative to traditional copper cables and/or fiber. How does 5G […]

Why 100MHz in 5G is more efficient than 100MHz in LTE?
August 12, 2023

5G defines the use of wide radio channels. Whereas 4G is limited to a maximum radio channel size of 20 MHz, 5G standards specify the use of radio channels up to 100 MHz in frequency bands below 7 GHz and up to 400 MHz in mmWave radio channels at 24 GHz and higher. Beyond these […]

What is 5G Non-terrestrial network (NTN) Solution?
August 5, 2023

From the perspective of global network coverage, more than 80% of land areas and 95% of sea areas are not covered by ground cellular networks. The 5G network was built not only to provide high network speeds, but also ubiquitous mobile network access. However, in remote areas such as mountainous areas, deserts, and the ocean, […]

What is Access Gateway Function (AGF)?
July 20, 2023

5G delivers higher data speeds, and lower latency, and supports more users, devices, and services while simultaneously improving network efficiency. As defined by the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), the 5G core (5GC) network is a cloud-aligned, service-based architecture (SBA) and covers all 5G functions and interactions. The converged 5GC lays the foundation for a single […]

5G Transport Network Architecture
July 15, 2023

📕 5G network comprises a remote radio unit (RRU), distributed unit (DU), a centralized unit (CU), and a core network. The terms fronthaul, midhaul, and backhaul are describing the 5G transport network support for the interfaces between these nodes. 📕 A Fronthaul transport network supports the low-layer functional split point of 3GPP NG-RAN (e.g., Option […]

5G Standalone (SA) Will Change Telecom Industry
July 1, 2023

📗 In 5G SA, NR will enable the service provisioning through gNB (gNodeB) which connects to the new core 5GC (5G Core Network) using NG Interface. 📗 According to GSMA, by 2025, 5G networks will cover a third of the population (measuring 1.8 billion connections) and as per GSA, 116 operators are identified as investing in […]

What is The Difference between MORAN and MOCN?
June 17, 2023

Mobile communication network sharing refers to the sharing of infrastructure or communication equipment among multiple operators. The infrastructure includes towers, buildings, and equipment rooms used for deploying base stations, whilst the communication equipment includes RAN, transport network, and CN equipment. Network resource sharing includes active sharing and passive sharing. Passive sharing refers to the sharing […]

Layer 1 Network Functions are The Challengers of vRAN and Open RAN!
June 7, 2023

When we’re discussing vRAN and Open RAN topics, we’ll find ourselves facing some questions about the performance and cost. The highly common question is ” Can virtualized RAN deliver the same performance as traditional RAN? ” I see it’s a valid and logical question especially since no one will invest with at least a guaranteed […]

The Evolution from SIM-> eSIM -> iSIM
June 5, 2023

SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) is a reliable method of identifying users, checking the authenticity of endpoint devices, and securing their data. 📗 Over the years, SIMs have shrunk from the original plastic card to Mini-SIM, Micro SIM, and finally Nano-SIM. Regardless of the packaging, all SIMs are built on smart card (UICC) technology similar to […]

The Road from CPRI to eCPRI/ORAN Fronthual
May 31, 2023

As we know that RAN, Radio Access Network, is divided into two main components: -> Baseband Unit (BBU). -> Radio Unit (RU). The move from D-RAN to C-RAN then v-RAN and O-RAN depends on how to deploy these two RAN components. MNOs want to #centralize the RAN control functions to improve overall performance, gain efficiencies, and reduce […]

5G mmWave Spectrum Notes
May 21, 2023

All notes you should know about 5G mmWave Band. 🔋 5G mmWave refers to the higher range of radio frequencies (above about 24 GHz) supported by 5G. Also, it’s called FR2 or Frequency Range 2. 🔋 5G mmWave provides a significant capacity increase with an additional spectrum. 🔋 5G mmWave FR2 Frequency rand is FR2-1 […]

SMS Evolution from 2G to 5G
May 13, 2023

SMS, Short Message Service, is a secure system that helps protect your customers’ and employees’ data and allows you to contact all users who have a mobile phone. 📕 In 2G and 3G, MAP protocols have been defined to support the SMS. MAP interface is built on top of SS7 (TDM or SIGTRAN) using the following layers […]

Open RAN Main Elements
May 8, 2023

The open radio access network or Open RAN can be broadly divided into the following three elements: Open interfaces that combine RAN equipment from a variety of vendors. Virtualization (i.e., virtualized RAN (vRAN) that enables hardware and software inside RAN equipment to be separated. Intelligent control that optimizes and automates RAN operation. Open RAN can […]

3GPP RAN Technical Specifications Groups (TSGs)
April 12, 2023

3GPP consists of three Technical Specifications Groups (TSGs) where TSG RAN (Radio Access Network) is responsible for the definition of functions, requirements, and interfaces of the Radio Access. TSG RAN consists of six working groups (WGs): RAN WG1, dealing with the physical layer specifications. RAN WG2, dealing with the layer 2 and layer 3 radio […]

What is The Relation between eCPRI, Option 7, Option 7-2x and Split E?
April 4, 2023

The increase in data rates in 5G makes it impractical to continue with the conventional CPRI fronthaul implementation. Moving towards a higher layer split would relax the latency and bandwidth requirements, but then fewer processing functions can be centralized. It is thus critical that the new functional-split architecture takes into account technical and cost-effective trade-offs […]

Why CPRI is not used in 5G Network?
April 3, 2023

As I received many messages during the last week about the eCPRI topic in 5G and OpenRAN, I prepared some notes about this. eCPRI is replacing the CPRI protocol in 5G to reduce the bandwidth BW requirements of CPRI transport and making Fronthaul affordable and available for all mobile network operators. It improves transport efficiency to match the Speed and […]

Energy Usage Resources in Mobile Network Operators (MNOs)
March 29, 2023

There’re many factors that impact the energy consumption in the mobile network operators, some of them related to climate, population density, and data consumption levels, while others are related to the network operators themselves or under its control. So there’re two groups as per GSMA benchmarking: Non-network-related variables – those outside the operator’s control (e.g. […]

The Role of Hardware Security Module (HSM) in 5G Security?
March 26, 2023

Security is a driving factor in how 5G networks are built and operated – every element of a 5G network is required to have security controls in place for the purpose of delivering confidentiality, integrity, and availability so that the network can provide users with a secure communications platform. What is HSM? ​HSM (Hardware Security […]