Function Migration from 4G to 5G
March 10, 2021

5G shouldn’t be seen simply as the next generation of mobile communications. It’s a smart ecosystem that’s ready to catch new innovations and highly customized services. 4G to 5G Interworking 4G LTE and the 5G networks will continue to interwork for a number of years. This is why it’s essential to:  Support a seamless handover […]

5G New Radio (NR) Release 15 Technologies
February 3, 2021

  5G New Radio (NR) 3GPP is defining 5G NR in Release 15, with an initial release for a non-standalone operation scheduled for March 2018 and a full release for a standalone version scheduled for September 2018. 5G New Radio Release 15 Focus: 5G NR Release 15 features: Ability to operate in any frequency band, […]

INTER-gNB Xn handover procedure in 5G NR
January 26, 2021

The core of mobility management in 5G NR is very similar to the one in 4G LTE. As specified by 3GPP Rel. 15, mobility in mobile networks is divided into RRC_IDLE mobility, RRC_INACTIVE mobility, and RRC_CONNECTED mobility. RRC_IDLE and RRC_INACTIVE state in which UE does not have any established RRC connection. RRC_CONNECTED means that UE […]

What is the Importance of massive MIMO in 5G NR?
December 29, 2020

5G new radio (NR) is conceived to provide new service types, namely, enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC), and massive machine-type communications (mMTC). Among these, eMBB is expected to provide exceptionally fast data speeds to facilitate services that have high throughput requirements such as high definition (HD) video streaming, virtual reality […]

What is the difference between RRC_IDLE and RRC_Inactive?
December 8, 2020

RRC_IDLE The UE is in the idle state when there is no RRC connection established. In RRC_IDLE: A UE specific DRX cycle may be configured by upper layers. UE monitors a paging channel for core network paging using 5G-S-TMSI or IMSI. UE performs neighbor cell measurements and cell reselection. UE acquires system information (SI). RRC_INACTIVE […]

5G NR Synchronization Signal Block (SSB)
November 22, 2020

In previous cellular technologies (LTE, LTE-M, NB-IoT), cell-specific synchronization and reference signals were used. Always-on reference signals were spread over the entire spectrum for precise channel estimation. 5G NR is a completely new approach regarding cell-specific signals. 5G NR only broadcasts a minimum amount of cell-specific signals with a known sequence that can be measured […]

RAN Virtualization in 5G Network
December 7, 2019

What is Virtualization? Virtualization means decoupling software from hardware, enabling mobile network operators to handle dynamic and challenging use cases, such as enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), massive connectivity (mIoT), and ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC). It allows you to use a physical machine’s full capacity by distributing its capabilities among many users or environments. […]

EPC Core Upgrade for 5G EN-DC
November 1, 2019

  At first, we need to identify the meaning of word EN–DC, It’s E-UTRAN New Radio Dual Connectivity. Simply it means the possibility of UE to get simultaneous data from LTE eNB and 5G gNB.  In EN-DC, the radio access network is composed of eNBs (eNodeBs) as the master node and gNBs (gNodeBs) as the […]

5G 3GPP NR Frame Structure
January 11, 2019

Introduction The 5G is expected to fulfill the needs and business contexts of 2020 and more. It is expected to enable a fully mobile and connected society, related to the huge growth in connectivity and density/volume of traffic that will be required in the near future to provide and guarantee: Very high throughput (1 Gbps or more), to support […]

Why Should Operators Care about 5G Now?
October 19, 2018

Introduction  The December 2017 deadline for the primary set of New Radio (NR) technical specifications, known as early drop out/December acceleration, was finally achieved. – This acceleration was originally motivated to be updated with proprietary fixed wireless access solutions in mmW. – The early drop out scope is limited to Non Stand Alone (NSA) NR, […]