5G New Radio (NR) Release 15 Technologies
February 3, 2021

  5G New Radio (NR) 3GPP is defining 5G NR in Release 15, with an initial release for a non-standalone operation scheduled for March 2018 and a full release for a standalone version scheduled for September 2018. 5G New Radio Release 15 Focus: 5G NR Release 15 features: Ability to operate in any frequency band, […]

5G Commercial Network in Gulf Countries
February 2, 2021

The Gulf Countries (UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Oman) are the front runner in the 5G Race. They started to think of 5G as early as Mid-2019. Use Cases: The main initial two uses cases are eMBB (Mobile) and FWA (Fixed Wireless Access). 5G Spectrum Band: The 5G Spectrum Auction is in two […]

INTER-gNB Xn handover procedure in 5G NR
January 26, 2021

The core of mobility management in 5G NR is very similar to the one in 4G LTE. As specified by 3GPP Rel. 15, mobility in mobile networks is divided into RRC_IDLE mobility, RRC_INACTIVE mobility, and RRC_CONNECTED mobility. RRC_IDLE and RRC_INACTIVE state in which UE does not have any established RRC connection. RRC_CONNECTED means that UE […]

5G Spectrum Bands to Address New Use Cases
January 24, 2021

The ITU-R IMT-2020 (5G) Vision includes three usage scenarios: eMBB, mMTC, and uRLLC. It also specifies the key capabilities of IMT-2020 which represent great improvements in comparison with the previous generation of IMT systems. To address diversified requirements from the envisioned usage scenarios in different phases of 5G, 5G needs access to “high”, “mid” and […]

What is the difference between 5G NSA Options 3/3a/3x?
January 14, 2021

When you are reading 3GPP TS 37.340 for 5G NR Release 15, you’ll find on Page 7, section 4 the definition of “Multi-RAT Dual Connectivity” or MR-DC and the definition is not new as it’s already mentioned before on 3GPP Release 14 TS 36.300.  The main idea of Dual Connectivity or DC, in general, is […]

O-RAN Architecture Overview
January 12, 2021

O-RAN SC architecture follows O-RAN Alliance defined architecture. In the O-RAN architecture, the radio side includes Near-RT RIC, O-CU-CP, O-CU-UP, O-DU, and O-RU. The management side includes Service Management and Orchestration Framework that contains a Non-RT-RIC function. Components Definition near-RT RIC: O-RAN near-real-time RAN Intelligent Controller: a logical function that enables near-real-time control and optimization […]

The “Cherry” Release of O-RAN Open Software

The “Cherry” Release of O-RAN Open Software  • Cherry features significant advancements in the end-to-end integration of O-RAN Architecture components. • The software now contains new functions aligned with the latest O-RAN specifications, such as the E2, A1 or O1 interfaces. In December 2020, the O-RAN Software Community (OSC), working with the Linux Foundation, published […]

BWP Configuration & Allocation
January 5, 2021

Bandwidth Parts & Bandwidth Adaptation Basic Concepts As per the definition in TS38.300, with Bandwidth Adaptation (BA), the receive and transmit bandwidth of a UE need not be as large as the bandwidth of the cell and can be adjusted: the width can be ordered to change, e.g. to shrink during the period of low […]

2020 Year In Review
December 31, 2020

The last 12 months have seen an unprecedented amount of disruption in the Telecom industry, fueled in large part by the coronavirus pandemic. Let’s take a look back at the most important articles and posts I wrote in 2020. Open RAN  What is the difference between 4G C-RAN and 5G C-RAN? What is the difference […]

What is the Importance of massive MIMO in 5G NR?
December 29, 2020

5G new radio (NR) is conceived to provide new service types, namely, enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC), and massive machine-type communications (mMTC). Among these, eMBB is expected to provide exceptionally fast data speeds to facilitate services that have high throughput requirements such as high definition (HD) video streaming, virtual reality […]

What is 5G RAN slicing?
December 20, 2020

RAN slicing builds on existing 5G network investments to facilitate the creation of next-level services for enterprises and mobile broadband (MBB) end-users while guaranteeing the fulfillment of service level agreements (SLA). What is 5G RAN slicing? In the era of 5G, efficient solutions are needed to address simultaneously services that need high bandwidth and services […]