Energy Usage Resources in Mobile Network Operators (MNOs)
March 29, 2023

There’re many factors that impact the energy consumption in the mobile network operators, some of them related to climate, population density, and data consumption levels, while others are related to the network operators themselves or under its control. So there’re two groups as per GSMA benchmarking: Non-network-related variables – those outside the operator’s control (e.g. […]

The Role of Hardware Security Module (HSM) in 5G Security?
March 26, 2023

Security is a driving factor in how 5G networks are built and operated – every element of a 5G network is required to have security controls in place for the purpose of delivering confidentiality, integrity, and availability so that the network can provide users with a secure communications platform. What is HSM? ​HSM (Hardware Security […]

Time Synchronization is Critical in 5G Open RAN Network
February 20, 2023

In order to meet the 5G network timing requirements, there is a significant challenge. The challenge is 5G performance requirements driving precise timing needs from cloud to edge. The legacy proprietary solutions rely on high-cost, purpose-built appliances, and specialized network interface cards. 5G deployments demand high timing synchronization across the network and affordable infrastructure costs. […]

What is 5G Security Edge Protection Proxy (SEPP)?
January 12, 2023

The Security Edge Protection Proxy (SEPP) is a proxy that sits at the perimeter of the PLMN network and enables secured communication between inter-PLMN network messages. It protects the home network and acts as a security gateway. Located at the edge of the network, it polices connections between the home network and the visited networks. […]

Are 5G and WiFi6E Friends or Competitors?
January 10, 2023

When it comes to questioning, Are 5G and WiFi6E friends or competitors, I prefer to answer “They Should be Friends” 5G (cellular technology) and Wi-Fi 6E (wireless LAN) use similar technical methodologies to provide high-end user experiences. Both 5G and Wi-Fi 6E are the latest versions of their respective technologies. Two common approaches being used […]

The Evolution from 4G to 5G by CPRI to eCPRI Transformation
October 19, 2022

As per Statista, The number of global unique mobile subscribers is expected to grow by 160 million from 5.7 billion subscribers in 2020 to 5.86 billion in 2025 and this massive data growth means more expectations regarding the data speed, capacity, and customer experience.   4G technology provides the network architecture to transmit huge amounts […]

5G is Not Hazardous To Your Health
September 26, 2022

All generations of mobile phone technology, including 5G, take the same familiar underlying approach. A mobile network consists of a nationwide grid of cell sites. These sites feature transmitters that generate radio waves, which are received by a mobile phone’s antenna.  The radio waves generated by mobile networks, TV stations, and radio stations are not […]

3GPP Architecture for 5G NR
September 21, 2022

As per 3GPP, The gNB is divided into two logical functions: the CU and DU. The DU is the baseband unit in a 5G RAN. It handles layer 1 and layer 2 processing and fulfills critical functions such as coding/decoding, scheduling, MIMO processing, and beamforming. It makes sub-millisecond decisions about allocating radio resources within a […]

5G 3GPP Releases from Release 15 to Release 18
September 16, 2022

5G is an evolving standard. The initial version of 5G was accomplished with the freezing of Release 15 late-drop in summer 2019. Enhanced features originally were introduced in Release 15 and new features were incorporated in Release 16 in 2020. More enhancements of features defined in prior releases and new features are part of Release […]

Why Is 5G Growth Faster Than The Previous Generations?
August 23, 2022

5G can be significantly faster than 4G, delivering up to 20 Gigabits-per-second (Gbps) peak data rates and 100+ Megabits-per-second (Mbps) average data rates. 5G has more capacity than 4G. 5G is designed to support a 100x increase in traffic capacity and network efficiency. 5G has lower latency than 4G. 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G all led […]

3GPP Yang Model for nrCellDU “5G SW Development”
August 22, 2022

3GPP TS 28.541 explains how Yang models are implemented in 5G gNB in gNB-CU and gNB-DU as below: The nrCellDU table models a geographical area of radio coverage that is implemented and supported by physical radio equipment for 5G NR GNB devices, These are contained in GNBDU Functions. Definition NRCELLDU represents the information of a cell […]