eNB/gNB Architecture with O-DU and O-RUs
February 13, 2023

The architecture of eNB or gNB with O-DU and O-RUs has some important definitions here: O-DU: O-RAN Distributed Unit: a logical node hosting RLC/MAC/High-PHY layers based on a lower layer functional split. O-RU: O-RAN Radio Unit: a logical node hosting the Low-PHY layer and RF processing based on a lower layer functional split. LLS: Lower […]

What is Precision Timing Protocol (PTP)?
February 9, 2023

What is PTP? Precision Time Protocol (PTP), defined in the IEEE1588-2008 standard, is a protocol that uses a master-slave hierarchy to synchronize clocks on network devices. PTP uses hardware time stamping to achieve submicrosecond synchronization. PTP defines how real-time clocks in a network synchronize with each other. A network where PTP operates is called a […]

What is The M-Plane in Open RAN?
January 31, 2023

First, to understand the function of the fronthaul M-Plane, let’s remember the Fronthaul Planes, Please read this and continue.  What are C/U/M/S Fronthaul (FH) Planes in ORAN ? What is the M-Plane?  Management Plane: refers to non-real-time management operations between the O-DU and the O-RU like:  Performance Management (PM). Configuration Management (CM). Fault Management (FM). […]

The Best Analogy for OpenRAN is IKEA
January 6, 2023

For example, if we are looking at 5G RAN which is composed of a variety of subsystems including network elements such as the baseband unit (BBU) and remote radio Unit (RRU), and low-level software such as the operating system OS, containers, hardware including servers, Ethernet adapters and more. All of these elements in the OpenRAN […]

Why 5G needs moving from CPRI to eCPRI?
December 11, 2022

📗 CPRI is standardized by the Common Public Radio Interface forum with the first specification in 2003 with some features It is based on functional split 8 (Split E in eCPRI Specs.) between RF and Physical layer which means the legacy one. It covers user plane data, control plane transport mechanisms, and means for synchronization. […]

RIC Main Components: Non-RT RIC and Near-RT RIC
November 25, 2022

The RAN intelligent Controller (RIC) is cloud-native, and a central component of an open and virtualized RAN network. The RIC aligns with 3GPP release 15 and beyond. It is foundational to enabling network programmability, intelligence, and disaggregation in a modern network. It is an essential component of the Open RAN architecture. The RIC architecture includes […]

What is the difference between look-aside Acceleration and inline Acceleration ?
November 24, 2022

Open RAN by disaggregation involves CU (Centralized Unit) and DU (Distributed Unit) virtualization. By decoupling hardware and software, Open RAN makes it possible to select different vendors and solutions for hardware and software and to manage their lifecycles separately. More specifically, this makes it possible to use COTS (Commercial off-the-shelf) general-purpose hardware in the RAN […]

How To Start Your Open RAN Career?

The Open RAN concept is based on open and standardized interfaces, which grant interoperability. Thus, it enables multiple vendors to provide different parts of hardware and software. 🧧 Although various network elements come from numerous vendors and are pro vendors to proprietary, they are designed to work together with other vendors’ products. In addition, open […]

What is the difference between Non-RT RIC and Near-RT RIC?
November 8, 2022

First, We need to know that the most important functional components introduced by O-RAN are the non-real-time (non-RT) radio intelligent controller (RIC) and the near-RT RIC. While the former is hosted by the service management and orchestration (SMO) framework of the system (e.g., integrated within ONAP), the latter may be co-located with 3GPP gNB functions, […]

Open RAN Changes Your RAN Mindset!
October 13, 2022

The RAN has been considered the most expensive part of network deployment. RAN consists of around 60-70% of the network Capex. The Open RAN (Open Radio Access Network (RAN) Journey is about changing the mindset and accepting the fact that Open RAN is not a new technology we need to test, however, it’s the future […]

How Much Cost Is Saved by RAN Virtualization?
September 28, 2022

Virtualized radio access networks (vRANs) are a way for telecommunications operators to run their baseband functions as software. One of the primary benefits of virtualizing radio access networks (RANs) is that RAN functions no longer require special proprietary hardware to run, and can instead be run on standard servers. This is achieved by applying the […]