The Evolution of Security in 5G
November 2, 2018

Introduction 5G will give a diverse and new set of services and use cases affecting nearly every aspect of our lives. But to exceed all expectations, 5G-enabled services and applications must be delivered securely. For example, 5G will support Massive Internet of Things (MIoT) implementations like traffic sensors and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) services that are the […]

Why Should Operators Care about 5G Now?
October 19, 2018

Introduction  The December 2017 deadline for the primary set of New Radio (NR) technical specifications, known as early drop out/December acceleration, was finally achieved. – This acceleration was originally motivated to be updated with proprietary fixed wireless access solutions in mmW. – The early drop out scope is limited to Non Stand Alone (NSA) NR, […]

Network Slicing in 5G
October 5, 2018

Introduction: The 5G system has the aspiration of responding to the widest variety of services and implications in the history of mobile and wireless communications listed in: Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB). Ultra-reliable and low-latency communications (URLLC). Massive machinetype communications (mMTC). As a response to the needs of these services and applications, the 5G system targets a flexible […]

VoLTE Call Flow
September 21, 2018

VoLTE Call Flow: Turing on the VoLTE-enabled devices (e.g., smartphones) connects it to the LTE network infrastructure. Then, two default EPS bearers are assigned – one for SIP signaling with a non-GBR QCI value of 5 and the other for the LTE network with a non-GBR QCI value (from 5 to 9). The QoS Class […]

mmWave at 5G “Challenges & Suggested Solutions”
September 7, 2018

What Is mmWave?  Millimeter wave is the band of spectrum between 30 to 300 GHz. it is also known as extremely high frequency. This spectrum can be used for high-speed wireless communications since it is wedged between microwave and infrared waves. As used in with the latest 802.11 and Wi-Fi standard (functioning at 60 GHz). […]

Voice Over 5G “Vo5G”
August 24, 2018

Introduction: As the standardization of 5G at the first stage has been successfully completed, 5G networks will be put into commercial use. When deploying 5G networks, carriers have to think about the factors of different 5G network deployment options, this is in addition to the expansion of 5G network coverage and maturity of the terminal […]

Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT)
August 10, 2018

Why NB-IoT? The broad spectrum of capabilities is one of the main characteristics of Machine Type Communication (MTC). For instance, surveillance cameras deliver a massive amount of UL data while being almost stationary, while devices for fleet tracking have a fewer amount of data during performing a lot of handovers, devices for meter reading such […]

5G Network Architecture
July 27, 2018

Introduction  The investigation of the 5G cellular network has been triggered by the great growth of wireless data services driven by mobile Internet and smart devices. The new 5G mobile networks are expected to be deployed around 2020. Several multimedia applications with a huge variety of needs will have to be supported by 5G networks. […]

The Potential 5G Use Cases & Requirements
July 13, 2018

Introduction  5G is the future network revolution of mobile technology. The characteristics and usability are exceeding human expectations. With its extra high speed, it owns the prospects to change the face of cell phone usability. 5G will improve the mobile network that it will interconnect people, machines, objects, and devices and gain control over many […]

How Does 5G Achieve 20 Gbps?
June 29, 2018

5G aspires to be the unique generation not only fulfill the needs of mobile operators and consumers but also creates fresh potentials and opens an extraordinarily huge diversity of applications and uses, all in a single technology. 5G is setting itself up as an enabler of the digitization of society and the economy.   Consumer […]

5G Will Enrich the Telecommunication Ecosystem
June 15, 2018

In the revolutionary time of 5G, newly-emerging communication requirements create hardships on the existing networks when it comes to technologies and business models.     The next-generation mobile network must meet diversified demands. Three categories of 5G mobile network services have been classified by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as follows: 1- Enhanced Mobile Broadband […]

Modulation and Signal Quality in LTE
June 1, 2018

Depending on the modulation technique, each symbol stands for bits and each data point represents a different bit pattern.   QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM are used by LTE devices to modulate data and control information. The eNodeB supports all of these modulation techniques for the Down Link direction. However, 64QAM is optional in the Uplink direction. […]

Is There Compressed Mode in LTE?
May 18, 2018

During RRC_CONNECTED mode, if the eNodeB decides that the UE needs to perform LTE inter-frequency and inter-RAT monitoring activities, it will provide the UE with a measurement configuration which includes a monitoring gap pattern sequence. Similar mechanisms exist in UMTS (known as ‘Compressed Mode gaps’ and ‘FACH Measurement Occasions’ depending on the state and capabilities […]

LTE Radio Channels
May 4, 2018

Different channels are used for data to be transported through the LTE radio interface. These channels are used to separate the various types of data and allow the data to be transported across the radio network in an organized manner. Effectively the different channels provide interfaces to the higher layers within the LTE protocol structure […]

5G New Radio (NR) Physical Layer

New Radio is a new air interface that is not backward compatible with LTE, LTE⁃Advanced or LTE⁃Advanced⁃pro. Without depending on 2G, 3G or 4G networks, NR networks can be independently deployed. In order to be able to work independently, NR should have a complete set of RAN functionalities. Just like the previous mobile generation networks, […]

5G Spectrum
March 23, 2018

Introduction Mobile network operators around the world are experiencing huge growth in mobile data traffic and forecasts suggest that over the coming years it is set to rise even more dramatically. In the populated areas where traffic density is extremely high, many operators are already facing capacity challenges.  The notion “capacity crunch” where operators face […]

Channel Element at R99/HSDPA/HSUPA
March 16, 2018

Channel Element The SW licensed capacity resources required for a dedicated channel (DCH or E-DCH) are described by Channel Element (CE). The number of channel elements required in a RBS is based on the traffic type and is dependent on the radio bearers to be used and on the simultaneous users for each bearer. Hardware […]

Difference between 3G and 3.5G
March 9, 2018

The radio resource management (RRM) functionality with HSDPA and HSUPA has experienced changes compared with Release 99. In Release 99, the scheduling control was mainly based in the radio network controller (RNC). While in the base station (BTS or Node B in 3GPP terminology) there was basically a power control-related functionality. In Release 99, the […]