How Does 5G Achieve 20 Gbps?
June 29, 2018

5G aspires to be the unique generation not only fulfill the needs of mobile operators and consumers but also creates fresh potentials and opens an extraordinarily huge diversity of applications and uses, all in a single technology. 5G is setting itself up as an enabler of the digitization of society and the economy.   Consumer […]

5G Will Enrich the Telecommunication Ecosystem
June 15, 2018

In the revolutionary time of 5G, newly-emerging communication requirements create hardships on the existing networks when it comes to technologies and business models.     The next-generation mobile network must meet diversified demands. Three categories of 5G mobile network services have been classified by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as follows: 1- Enhanced Mobile Broadband […]

Modulation and Signal Quality in LTE
June 1, 2018

Depending on the modulation technique, each symbol stands for bits and each data point represents a different bit pattern.   QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM are used by LTE devices to modulate data and control information. The eNodeB supports all of these modulation techniques for the Down Link direction. However, 64QAM is optional in the Uplink direction. […]

Is There Compressed Mode in LTE?
May 18, 2018

During RRC_CONNECTED mode, if the eNodeB decides that the UE needs to perform LTE inter-frequency and inter-RAT monitoring activities, it will provide the UE with a measurement configuration which includes a monitoring gap pattern sequence. Similar mechanisms exist in UMTS (known as ‘Compressed Mode gaps’ and ‘FACH Measurement Occasions’ depending on the state and capabilities […]

LTE Radio Channels
May 4, 2018

Different channels are used for data to be transported through the LTE radio interface. These channels are used to separate the various types of data and allow the data to be transported across the radio network in an organized manner. Effectively the different channels provide interfaces to the higher layers within the LTE protocol structure […]

5G New Radio (NR) Physical Layer

New Radio is a new air interface that is not backward compatible with LTE, LTE⁃Advanced or LTE⁃Advanced⁃pro. Without depending on 2G, 3G or 4G networks, NR networks can be independently deployed. In order to be able to work independently, NR should have a complete set of RAN functionalities. Just like the previous mobile generation networks, […]

5G Spectrum
March 23, 2018

Introduction Mobile network operators around the world are experiencing huge growth in mobile data traffic and forecasts suggest that over the coming years it is set to rise even more dramatically. In the populated areas where traffic density is extremely high, many operators are already facing capacity challenges.  The notion “capacity crunch” where operators face […]

Channel Element at R99/HSDPA/HSUPA
March 16, 2018

Channel Element The SW licensed capacity resources required for a dedicated channel (DCH or E-DCH) are described by Channel Element (CE). The number of channel elements required in a RBS is based on the traffic type and is dependent on the radio bearers to be used and on the simultaneous users for each bearer. Hardware […]

Difference between 3G and 3.5G
March 9, 2018

The radio resource management (RRM) functionality with HSDPA and HSUPA has experienced changes compared with Release 99. In Release 99, the scheduling control was mainly based in the radio network controller (RNC). While in the base station (BTS or Node B in 3GPP terminology) there was basically a power control-related functionality. In Release 99, the […]